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State Profile
Profile of the State
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The State of Assam, popularly known as the land of the red river and blue hills is the gateway to the North East India. Geographically the state is extending from 22°19’ to 28°16’ North Latitude and 89°42’ to 96°30’ East Longitude between the foot hills of the Eastern Himalayas and the Patkai and Naga Hill Ranges. The state is bordered in the North by Bhutan and in the East by Arunachal Pradesh. Along the south lie Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Meghalaya lies to the South-West, West Bengal and Bangladesh to the West. The State is divided into 33 administrative districts.


With an area of 78,438 square kilometres, the state can be broadly divided into 3 physiographic domains viz. Brahmaputra valley, Central Assam Hills comprising of Mikir Hill in Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hill districts and Barak valley covering the Cachar and Karimganj districts in the Barak valley.

  Major River Systems

The Brahmaputra and the Barak are the two major river systems of the State. All the rivers in Assam are liable to floods, mainly because they receive heavy rainfall within a short time.


Assam has a diversified geological spectrum. It is located near the hairpin bend of the Himalayas. Hence the extreme geostatic pressures exerted on the landmass during the creation of the Himalayas have resulted in Assam having large areas of sedimentary deposits. This explains the huge amount of oil found in places like Digboi, Bongaigaon etc.

Cachar district of Assam is a huge storehouse of limestone. Karbi Anglong District and North Cachar hills have substantial reserves of coal. Of the four types of coal namely Peat, Lignite, Bituminous and Anthracite, the third kind is readily available out here.

Karbi Anglong  is also rich in  Kaolin (China Clay) deposits. Another district, Morigaon, contains extensive reserves of granite. The famous Dhubri district has an approximate reserve of more than ten million tonnes of Iron Ore. Of the four kinds of Iron ore, Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite and Siderite, the region is predominant in Haematite deposits. Nagaon district has got very high reserves of Glass  Sand. Thus the geology of Assam depicts a rich repository of minerals with its diversified geographical structure.


Assam experiences the predominant influence of the south west tropical monsoon which is normally active from April to October with occasional winter showers. The annual average rainfall of the state varies between 1600mm and 4300mm from place to place. The average rainfall for the state as a whole is about 2900mm with maximum precipitation during June and July. The average temperature in the state varies from 4°C to 19°C during the winter and 26°C to 37°C during the summer accompanied by high humidity.


The State is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world. Total Forest cover stands  as 35.48% and consists of tropical rainforests, deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo, orchards and numerous wetland ecosystems. The state has 5 national parks, 13 wildlife sanctuaries and 2 bird sanctuaries.


According to the Census of India, 2011, the total population of Assam is 31.17 million, population density stands as 396.8/km2 and literacy rate is 73.18%.



The economy of Assam continues to be predominantly agrarian. The contribution of Agriculture sector to the State Domestic Product was more than 25 percent during 2009-10. The chief agricultural products of the state are varieties of rice, tea, jute, mustard, pulses, sugarcane, potatoes, oranges, pineapples, coconut, arecanut, black pepper, citrus fruits, banana, papaya, turmeric, spices, flowers, medicinal & aromatic plants, besides many types of vegetables thus contributing significantly towards food and nutritional security of the State.


There are about 3.91 lakh hectares of water are in the State in the form of rivers, beel, derelict waterbodies and pond sand tanks. There is a positive trend in fish productivity during recent past. During the year 2009-10, the fish production has reached the tune of 2.18 lakh metrictons against 2.06 lakh metrictons fish produced in 2008-09.

  Livestock and Veterinary

As per estimation, the number of Indigenous Cattleis 77, 62, 572 and Crossbreed Cattle numbered 4, 46, 185 in the State during 2009-10 as reported by State Animal Husbandry and Veterinary(AH&V) Department. The AH&V Department has also published the estimated figure of Fowl and Duck as 7942817 and 3106136 respectively during the same year. The milk production in the State during 2009-10 was estimated at 830 millionliters. The egg and meat production were estimated at 4680 lakh numbers and 32000 M.T. respectively during the same period.


The Industrial scenario of the State is mainly confined within the growth of employment oriented Small Scale Sector, which comprises of manufacturing and processing industries. The contribution of manufacturing sector to Gross State Domestic Product is estimated at around 8% during 2010-11.

The Tea Industry of Assam, which is about 170 years old, playing a vital role in the State as well as in the national economy. The Assam’s Tea industry also possesses a significant reputation in the global economy. The total area under tea cultivation is accounting for more than half of the country’s total area under tea. And the Tea Industry of Assam provides average daily employment to more than six lakh persons in the State which is around 50 percent of the total average daily number of labour employed in the country. The tea production in Assam constitutes more than 50 percent of the total production of the country.

Among the Plantation crops, Rubber cultivation is also gaining its popularity in the State due to congenial agro climate as well as its eco-friendly activity.

Assam has ample scope for Bamboo based industry  like Paper manufacturing industry, since this region has highest concentration of bamboo i.,e., around 60% of the total Bamboo of the country.

Sericulture, a major cottage industry of the State, is practiced in more than 10,500 villages and provided employment to 2.6 lakh of family. Assam has the monopoly in production of Muga, the Golden Silk in the world and 99% of MugaSilk produced in Assam. Assam has also achieved the right of “Geographical Indication” in MugaSilk.
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